Question by DeeB: What are the immigration requirements to work in Switzerland for a British citizen?
Does a British citizen need a work permit to be employed by a Swiss company? Does the company need to apply for it? Also, does a British citizen need to apply for a residency permit to live and work in switzerland. Anything else?
Answer by LaFeeFan
Switzerland, although not a EU member, is adopting the right of free movement for citizens of member states of the European Union.
So get you a job a Switzerland, come to work for 90 days per year without any permit, just get the regular registration done by your employeer.
If you want to stay longer you need to apply for a permanent work and residence permit within 8 days after your arrival,
The attached link provides more detailed information.
Edit: Here is a collection of FAQ concerning immigration from a EU country
FAQ – Frequently asked questions
Citizens of the EU17/EFTA are nationals of one of the following countries: France, Germany, Austria, Italy, Spain, Portugal, UK, Ireland, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxemburg, Greece, Cyprus, Malta, Norway, Iceland und Liechtenstein
1. Scope of application
I am an EU/EFTA national, do I benefit from the Agreement on the Free Movement of Persons?
The provisions of the Agreement on the Free Movement of Persons applies to the nationals of all EU member states, with the exception of Bulgaria and Romania who have joined the EU on January 1 2007. For the accession countries of 2004, except Cyprus and Mata, (EU 8) there are still certain restrictions with regards to first time access to the labour market (see FAQ EU 8).
Citizens of EFTA (Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein) are subject to the same regulations as the EU 17.
I would like to move to Switzerland, what are my options?
You can take up residence in Switzerland if you fall under one of the following categories:
• You are an employee or self employed person
• You are a student and are admitted to study at an officially recognised educational institution
• You can dispose of sufficient financial means for you and your family and have a health insurance plan that covers all risks during your time of residence
2. Residence with gainful activity
I would like to work in Switzerland. What do I have to take into consideration?
Gainful activity up to 3 months:
EC/EFTA nationals taking up a job in Switzerland may stay in Switzerland without a residence permit for three months in a calendar year. However, their employer is obliged to register them with the authorities. This can be done online using the following procedure (not yet available in English):
Gainful activity for more than 3 months:
Within 8 days of their arrival and before actually taking up work, nationals of EU17/EFTA have to register with the communal authorities at their place of stay and apply for a residence permit. A valid ID (or a valid passport) as well as a written confirmation of employment have to be presented. In principle the so called “Zusicherung der Aufenthaltsbewilligung/Assurance d’aurorisation de séjour” is no longer issued, because the transitional measures concerning EU17/EFTA were lifted on June 1 2007. All necessary steps for obtaining the work and residence permit can be taken after arrival in Switzerland. For information on the customs regulations concerning your household effects please consult with the Swiss Federal Customs Administration.
3. Types of permits
What types of work permits are there, and how long are they valid?
Short term L EG/EFTA permit:
Employees receive this permit if they have a work contract of less than one year’s duration: The validity of the permit is identical with the duration of the contract.
B EG/EFTA residence permit:
Employees receive this permit if they have a work contract for twelve months or more, self employed persons receive it upon proof of effective self employment. Persons without gainful activity receive it if they can prove sufficient financial means and a comprehensive health insurance. The permit is valid for 5 years and renewable.
G EG/EFTA cross border commuter permit: Employees and self employed entrepreneurs receive this permit if they are EU/EFTA residents and work in Switzerland (employer or business location). They must return abroad at least once a week. They may stay in Switzerland during the week, but have to register with the communal authorities at their place of stay. For EU17/EFTA nationals no border zones apply, residence can be anywhere in the EU/EFTA, the workplace anywhere in Switzerland.
C EG/EFTA settlement permit:
After 5 years EU17/EFTA nationals (except Cyprus and Malta) are granted a settlement permit based upon agreements of reciprocity with their respective countries of origin. Its validity is unlimited; there is a control period of 5 years.
5. Job seekers
Do I first have to find a job in Switzerland, or can I immigrate before?
EU/EFTA nationals may enter Switzerland for job-hunting purposes. No permit is required for a period of up to three months. If they have not found a job after this time, a short-term residence permit (L permit) will be granted for another three months’ job search.
6. Professional mobility
Am I allowed to change jobs or places of residence?
Yes. EU/EFTA nationals are entitled to professional and geographical mobility. Employees do not need a permit to change professions and jobs. However, holders of short-term permits need a permit in order to be able to become self-employed (limited occupational mobility). A permit covers the entire territory of Switzerland. It is not necessary for the place of residence and the place of work to be in the same canton. When permit holders move house, they must notify the communal authorities
7. Who issues the permits? Where do I have to apply?
EU 17/EFTA nationals sort out their stay upon registration with the communal authorities after their arrival. More details can be obtained from the respective communal authorities or the cantonal migration authorities.
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Sir Henry Wotton, author and diplomat
Image by lisby1
Sir Henry Wotton (1568 – December, 1639) was an English author and diplomat.
The son of Thomas Wotton (1521-1587), brother of Edward Wotton, 1st Baron Wotton, and grandnephew of the diplomat Nicholas Wotton, he was born at Bocton Hall in the parish of Bocton or Boughton Malherbe, Kent. He was educated at Winchester College and at New College, Oxford, where he matriculated on 5 June 1584, alongside John Hoskins. Two years later he moved to Queen’s College, graduating in 1588. At Oxford he was the friend of Albericus Gentilis, then professor of Civil Law, and of John Donne. During his residence at Queen’s he wrote a play, Tancredo, which has not survived, but his chief interests appear to have been scientific. In qualifying for his M.A. degree he read three lectures De oculo, and to the end of his life he continued to interest himself in physical experiments.
His father, Thomas Wotton, died in 1587, leaving Henry only a hundred marks a year. About 1589 Wotton went abroad, with a view probably to preparation for a diplomatic career, and his travels appear to have lasted for about six years. At Altdorf he met Edward, Lord Zouch, to whom he later addressed a series of letters (1590-1593) which contain much political and other news, and provide a record of the journey. He travelled by way of Vienna and Venice to Rome, and in 1593 spent some time at Geneva in the house of Isaac Casaubon, to whom he contracted a considerable debt.
He returned to England in 1594, and in the next year was admitted to the Middle Temple. While abroad he had from time to time provided Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, with information, and he now definitely entered his service as one of his agents or secretaries. It was his duty to supply intelligence of affairs in Transylvania, Poland, Italy and Germany. Wotton was not, like his unfortunate fellow-secretary, Henry Cuffe, who was hanged at Tyburn in 1601, directly involved in Essex’s downfall, but he thought it prudent to leave England, and within sixteen hours of his patron’s apprehension he was safe in France, whence he travelled to Venice and Rome.
In 1602 he was living at Florence, and a plot to murder James VI of Scotland having come to the ears of the grand-duke of Tuscany, Wotton was entrusted with letters to warn the king of the danger, and with Italian antidotes against poison. As "Ottavio Baldi" he travelled to Scotland by way of Norway. He was well received by James, and remained three months at the Scottish court, retaining his Italian incognito. He then returned to Florence, but on receiving the news of James’s accession hurried to England. James knighted him, and offered him the embassy at Madrid or Paris; but Wotton, knowing that both these offices involved ruinous expense, desired rather to represent James at Venice.
He left London in 1604 accompanied by Sir Albertus Morton, his half-nephew, as secretary, and William Bedell, the author of an Irish translation of the Bible, as chaplain. Wotton spent most of the next twenty years, with two breaks (1612-1616 and 1619-1621), at Venice. He helped the Doge in his resistance to ecclesiastical aggression, and was closely associated with Paolo Sarpi, whose history of the Council of Trent was sent to King James as fast as it was written. Wotton had offended the scholar Caspar Schoppe, who had been a fellow student at Altdorf. In 1611 Schoppe wrote a scurrilous book against James entitled Ecclesiasticus, in which he fastened on Wotton a saying which he had incautiously written in a friend’s album years before. It was the famous definition of an ambassador as an "honest man sent to lie abroad for the good of his country" (Legatus est vir bonus peregre missus ad mentiendum rei publicae causa). It should be noticed that the original Latin form of the epigram did not admit of the double meaning. This was adduced as an example of the morals of James and his servants, and brought Wotton into temporary disgrace. Wotton was at the time on leave in England, and made two formal defences of himself, one a personal attack on his accuser addressed to Marcus Welser of Strassburg, and the other privately to the king.
He obtained no diplomatic employment for some time, but seems to have finally won back the royal favour by his parliamentary support in for James’s claim to impose arbitrary taxes on merchandise. In 1614 he was sent to the Hague and in 1616 he returned to Venice. In 1620 he was sent on a special embassy to Ferdinand II at Vienna, to do what he could on behalf of James’s daughter Elizabeth of Bohemia. Wotton’s devotion to this princess, expressed in his exquisite verses beginning "You meaner beauties of the night," was sincere and unchanging. At his departure the emperor presented him with a valuable jewel, which Wotton received with due respect, but before leaving the city he gave it to his hostess, because, he said, he would accept no gifts from the enemy of the Bohemian queen.
After a third term of service in Venice he returned to London early in 1624 and in July he was installed as provost of Eton College. This office did not resolve his financial problems, and he was on one occasion arrested for debt, but in 1627 he received a pension of £200, and in 1630 this was raised to £500 on the understanding that he should write a history of England. He did not neglect the duties of his provostship, and was happy in being able to entertain his friends lavishly. His most constant associates were Izaak Walton and John Hales. A bend in the Thames below the Playing Fields, known as "Black Potts," is still pointed out as the spot where Wotton and Izaak Walton fished in company. He died at the beginning of December 1639 and was buried in the chapel of Eton College.
Question by Aansa: How did Leonardo Da Vinci’s work contribute to the scientific revolution?
I’m doing a project for history and I decided to do this question.
It would really help if you could add sources and include his inventions.
Answer by Eric C.
Leonardo’s approach to science was an observational one: he tried to understand a phenomenon by describing and depicting it in utmost detail and did not emphasize experiments or theoretical explanation.
His notes and drawings display an enormous range of interests and preoccupations, some as mundane as lists of groceries and people who owed him money and some as intriguing as designs for wings and shoes for walking on water. There are compositions for paintings, studies of details and drapery, studies of faces and emotions, of animals, babies, dissections, plant studies, rock formations, whirlpools, war machines, helicopters and architecture.
During his lifetime Leonardo was valued as an engineer. In a letter to Ludovico il Moro he claimed to be able to create all sorts of machines both for the protection of a city and for siege. When he fled to Venice in 1499 he found employment as an engineer and devised a system of moveable barricades to protect the city from attack. He also had a scheme for diverting the flow of the Arno River. Leonardo’s journals include a vast number of inventions, both practical and impractical. They include musical instruments, hydraulic pumps, reversible crank mechanisms, finned mortar shells, and a steam cannon.
In 1502, Leonardo produced a drawing of a single span 720-foot (220 m) bridge as part of a civil engineering project for Ottoman Sultan Beyazid II of Constantinople. The bridge was intended to span an inlet at the mouth of the Bosporus known as the Golden Horn. Beyazid did not pursue the project because he believed that such a construction was impossible. Leonardo’s vision was resurrected in 2001 when a smaller bridge based on his design was constructed in Norway.
For much of his life, Leonardo was fascinated by the phenomenon of flight, producing many studies of the flight of birds, including his c. 1505 Codex on the Flight of Birds, as well as plans for several flying machines, including a light hang glider and a machine resembling a helicopter. The British television station Channel Four commissioned a documentary Leonardo’s Dream Machines, for broadcast in 2003. Leonardo’s machines were built and tested according to his original designs. Some of those designs proved a success, whilst others fared less well when practically tested.
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