Question by Charlie T. Unicorn: Does anyone konw any majo events in the 1920’s like the stock market crash?
It’s for my school project
Answer by morethanawoman000
Prohibition (illegalizing alcohol) was also during that time period.
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chitral photos of below story
Image by groundreporter
Sanitation project handed over to local community after completion.
CHITRAL: Chitral Area Integrated Development Program (CIADP0
completed different developmental scheme including sanitation at
Dumoon area of Broze and other parts of Chitral. Addressing a ceremony
on the occasion of handing over sanitation project after completion
to local community program coordinator Asfandiyar Khan said that CIADP
has completed different uplift schemes in Dumoon Broze area like
drinking water supply scheme, up-gradation of irrigation channel,
sanitation, Flood protection works, assessments and different training
for local people. He said that CIADP has spent 10.48 million rupees in
this remote area on different developmental schemes to facilitate
local people and its beneficiaries are more than 569 . District
Coordination officer Chitral Rahmatullah Wazir who was also chief
guest on the occasion highly hailed contribution of CIADP and also
thanked to Norwegian government and Netherland based organization who
donating a huge fund for development of Chitral. He said that these
projects running with the financial support of Norway and Netherland
through CIADP are strictly monitoring and we assure transparency
regarding spending of fund on these projects. Chairman Broze
Integrated Development Program (BIDP) a local support organization
Engineer Muhammad Ayub said that they work for development of entire
locality to enhance life standard of common people and to provide them
basic facilities. Ziaur Rehman executive magistrate and focal person
of district administration also appreciated dedicated services of
CIADP and BIDP team. He said that it is very difficult for any
government to solve all problems of local community and to provide
them all possible amenities but these are civil societies who
supporting us for developmental network. Besides them Muzafar
Hussain Shah Jan president of ANP Chitral and some local elites and
leaders also spoke on the occasion. A large number of people
belonging to all walks of life attended the handing over ceremony.
G.H. Farooqi C/O Manager bank Islami Main branch Chitral phone No
0943-320737, 316052, 414418 , 03025989602, 03337069572, 03159698446,
Question by fanny: can anyone please tell me the history of a mobile phone?
who,when,where was a mobile phone invented?
Answer by Hunter M
In 1908, U.S. Patent 887,357 for a wireless telephone was issued in to Nathan B. Stubblefield of Murray, Kentucky. He applied this patent to “cave radio” telephones and not directly to cellular telephony as the term is currently understood. Cells for mobile phone base stations were invented in 1947 by Bell Labs engineers at AT&T and further developed by Bell Labs during the 1960s. Radiophones have a long and varied history going back to Reginald Fessenden’s invention and shore-to-ship demonstration of radio telephony, through the Second World War with military use of radio telephony links and civil services in the 1950s, while hand-held cellular radio devices have been available since 1973. A patent for the first wireless phone as we know today was issued in US Patent Number 3,449,750 to George Sweigert of Euclid, Ohio on June 10th, 1969.
In 1945, the zero generation (0G) of mobile telephones was introduced. 0G mobile phones, such as Mobile Telephone Service, were not cellular, and so did not feature “handover” from one base station to the next and reuse of radio frequency channels. Like other technologies of the time, it involved a single, powerful base station covering a wide area, and each telephone would effectively monopolize a channel over that whole area while in use. The concepts of frequency reuse and handoff as well as a number of other concepts that formed the basis of modern cell phone technology are first described in U.S. Patent 4,152,647 , issued May 1, 1979 to Charles A. Gladden and Martin H. Parelman, both of Las Vegas, Nevada and assigned by them to the United States Government.
This is the first embodiment of all the concepts that formed the basis of the next major step in mobile telephony, the Analog cellular telephone. Concepts covered in this patent (cited in at least 34 other patents) also were later extended to several satellite communication systems. Later updating of the cellular system to a digital system credits this patent.
Martin Cooper, a Motorola researcher and executive is widely considered to be the inventor of the first practical mobile phone for handheld use in a non-vehicle setting. Cooper is the inventor named on “Radio telephone system” filed on October 17, 1973 with the US Patent Office and later issued as US Patent 3,906,166. Using a modern, if somewhat heavy portable handset, Cooper made the first call on a handheld mobile phone on April 3, 1973 to a rival, Dr. Joel S. Engel of Bell Labs.
The first commercial citywide cellular network was launched in Japan by NTT in 1979. Fully automatic cellular networks were first introduced in the early to mid 1980s (the 1G generation). The Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) system went online in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden in 1981.
In 1983, Motorola DynaTAC was the first approved mobile phone by FCC in the United States. In 1984, Bell Labs developed modern commercial cellular technology (based, to a large extent, on the Gladden, Parelman Patent), which employed multiple, centrally controlled base stations (cell sites), each providing service to a small area (a cell). The cell sites would be set up such that cells partially overlapped. In a cellular system, a signal between a base station (cell site) and a terminal (phone) only need be strong enough to reach between the two, so the same channel can be used simultaneously for separate conversations in different cells.
Cellular systems required several leaps of technology, including handover, which allowed a conversation to continue as a mobile phone traveled from cell to cell. This system included variable transmission power in both the base stations and the telephones (controlled by the base stations), which allowed range and cell size to vary. As the system expanded and neared capacity, the ability to reduce transmission power allowed new cells to be added, resulting in more, smaller cells and thus more capacity. The evidence of this growth can still be seen in the many older, tall cell site towers with no antennae on the upper parts of their towers. These sites originally created large cells, and so had their antennae mounted atop high towers; the towers were designed so that as the system expanded—and cell sizes shrank—the antennae could be lowered on their original masts to reduce range.
The first “modern” network technology on digital 2G (second generation) cellular technology was launched by Radiolinja (now part of Elisa Group) in 1991 in Finland on the GSM standard which also marked the introduction of competition in mobile telecoms when Radiolinja challenged incumbent Telecom Finland (now part of TeliaSonera) who ran a 1G NMT network.
The first data services appeared on mobile phones starting with person-to-person SMS text messaging in Finland in 1993. First trial payments using a mobile phone to pay for a Coca Cola vending machine were set in Finland in 1998. The first commercial payments were mobile parking triall
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